(PhysOrg.com) — A new study of the skeletal fossils of Neanderthal and Early modern man suggest the lack of a “throwing arm” may have made the difference in human evolution. Researchers Jill A. Rhodes and Steven Churchill, evolutionary anthropologists published their findings in the January 2009 edition of the Journal of Human Evolution. The paper entitled, “Throwing in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic: inferences from an analysis of humeral retroversion,” provides some clues to the extinction of Neanderthal. Projectile weaponry was an important component of early man’s survival toolkit. Traces of projectile weaponry have been found in Africa dating back some 80,000 years. The mass migration by early man out of Africa into Europe some 40,000 to 50,000 years ago, show early European man developed and used bow and arrows and other projectile devices. The Rhodes/Churchill small sampling of Neanderthal’s skeletal remains indicate he was outmatched by early modern man’s development of a “throwing arm”. This anatomical feature is measured by the degree of humeral retroversion in the dominant arm and in bilateral asymmetry. Neanderthal’s short squat body, massive limbs and lack of backward displacement at the shoulder joint may have hampered their ability to incorporate projectile weaponry. According to Jill Rhoades, an evolutionary anthropologist examinations of early modern European fossils show the backward displacement at the shoulder joint, but none of the small sampling of Neanderthal’s skeletal remains carry this anatomical characteristic. Modern athletes like baseball pitchers have this characteristic in one shoulder joint and it is referred to generally as their “throwing arm”. When engaging in over head throwing activity, such as throwing a baseball or a spear, this increases the movement of the muscles and gives greater velocity and speed to the throw, according to Steven Churchill an anthropologist at Duke University. This missing technology, along with climate change and competing arrow-shooting humans significantly challenged Neanderthal and may have led to an eventual extinction. According to the Rhodes/Churchill study, habitual behavior patterns, including those related to the production and use of technology, can be imprinted on the skeleton through both genetic and epigenetic pathways. Samples of bilateral humeri sufficient for measurement of Neanderthals are rare. The study consisted of two males and one female. The study concludes, that while the sample was small, consistently it was found that Neanderthal lacked the characteristic “throwing arm” found in early modern man. According to archeologist Eric Boeda of Paris X, Nanterre, Neanderthal was not without his resources. Boeda’s team identified bitumen, a tar-like substance on sharpened stones in Syria inhabited by Neanderthal nearly 70,000 years ago. The bitumen was used as an adhesive to attach sharpened stones to wooden handle in a procedure called hafting. This finding by the Boeda research team using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and carbon isotopes at 40km from the source places the hafting practice back 30,000 years from the date previously set in other research. Anthropologists agree, Neanderthal could throw spears short distances, but never graduated to the use of bow and arrows or spear-throwing technologies. Some 40,000 years ago, modern humans trekked out of Africa to Europe taking their bows and arrows with them for fishing, hunting and warfare. The bow and arrow enabled modern man to engage his environment and adapt to various environments. While it is cannot be stated with absolute certainty, Neanderthal’s inability or lack of interest in developing projectile weaponry may have been an important factor in his eventual demise. Scientists are uncertain as to whether modern human used bow and arrows or projectile devices against Neanderthal, but it is a distinct possibility. For further reading on the subject, See Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 56, January 2009, Throwing in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic: inferences from an analysis of humeral retroversion, Jill Rhodes and Steven Churchill.© 2009 PhysOrg.com The Reconstruction of the Funeral of Homo neanderthalensis. Captured in the Hannover Zoo. (Via Wikipedia) Citation: Neanderthal Lacked Anatomical Competitive Edge: Skeletal Remains Tell the Story (2009, January 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-01-neanderthal-lacked-anatomical-competitive-edge.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Researchers use quantum entanglement to improve differential interference contrast microscopy (2014, February 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-02-quantum-entanglement-differential-contrast-microscopy.html Illustration of (a) LCM-DIM and (b) the entanglement-enhanced microscope. The red and blue lines indicate horizontally and vertically polarized light. (c), (d) and (e) The change in the signal while the sample is scanned. Credit: arxiv.org/abs/1401.8075 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Physics team entangles photons that never coexisted in time Besides offering a way to create sharper images, the new technique might also prove useful for looking at material that is easily damaged by strong light—it might also lend itself to other types of measuring devices such as interferometers. © 2014 Phys.org More information: An entanglement-enhanced microscope, Nature Communications 4, Article number: 2426 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3426 . On Arxiv: https://sp2.img.hsyaolu.com.cn/wp-shlf1314/2020/IMG8939.jpg” alt=”last_img” />
Think. Eat. Save- Reduce our Foodprint. Follow the theme of the year as the world gets together to celebrate the World Environment Day. Capital joined in the global celebrations with a function organised by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. 5 June was declared as the ‘World Environment Day’ on the recommendations made by UN Conference on Human Environment in 1972.Raising awareness about the environmental consequences of our food choices, this year’s campaign calls for minimizing waste of food at all stages of the food chain. This is to ensure that everyone gets enough to eat and no one is left malnourished or undernourished. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Jayanthi Natarajan, Minister for Environment & Forests presided over the function to celebrate World Environment Day. Addressing the gathering, she said that there cannot be sustainable development without environment given due importance. Emphasizing the importance of sustainable development in everyday life, Natarajan said that the debate of progress versus environment or development versus environment is completely irrelevant and unnecessary. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix On the occasion, Natarajan presented this year’s ‘Young Environmentalist of the Year Award – 2013’ to Arundhati Srivastava, for winning a national poster making competition on the theme: Face of Climate Change.As the part of the celebrations, five publications namely, Animal Discoveries- 2012, Plant Discoveries 2012, Coastal Zones of India, National Wetland Atlas: High Altitude Lakes of India and National Wetland Atlas : Wetlands of International Importance under Ramsar Convention were released for sensitizing the citizens. Highlighting the importance of this year’s theme, Natarajan said, that there is an urgent need to become more aware of environmental impact on the food choices we make. If food is wasted, it means all resources and inputs used in the production of all those foods are also lost, she added.
“You cannot be holding back money of investors who do not want to be relocated in other projects… Developers can’t take investors for a ride. If they want refund of their investments, can we deny them this relief,” a bench headed by Chief Justice HL Dattu said. Terming it a victory of the investors, office bearers of RWA Emerald Court, the welfare association which had moved the court against the wrong doing, said that the guilty persons must be punished. Also Read – Company director arrested for swindling Rs 345 crore“The court’s order is in pursuance of Allahabad High Court which has already declared construction of twin towers as illegal. As the high court has prosecuted the guilty, we hope the same from the apex court in the next hearing. With the order to return the whole amount with annual compound interest, our stand has been proved, finally,” said Vashisth Sharma, an office bearer.The court in its order said: “We direct the respondent (Supertech) to refund the amount sought by the petitioners. Principal amount shall be paid in 30 days,” the bench, which also comprised Justice A K Sikri, stated. The apex court also directed the company to refund the interest within 60 days after the principal amount is paid to the investors. Also Read – Man who cheated 20 women on matrimonial websites arrestedEarlier, it had directed Supertech to give back money within a month to the flat owners who had sought refund of their investments, after the 40-storey residential twin towers Apex and Ceyane in Noida were directed to be demolished by the Allahabad High Court.Holding that flat owners cannot be forced to remain in a limbo and wait indefinitely due to litigation, the bench had also directed the company to pay compound interest at the rate of 14 per cent per annum to the allottees by the end of October, 2014. It had turned down the plea of Supertech which had contended that it was not in a position to pay back the money as the interest part has grown more than the principal. The price of the flats, located in the outskirts of Delhi, ranged from Rs 65 lakh to Rs 1.25 crore.
Kolkata: The Gurusaday museum, set up in the year 1961, highlights the exquisite collection of Bengal’s rare art and culture. There are 2325 specimens collected by Gurusaday Dutt, an ICS officer, during his tenure as a district magistrate and collector between 1929 and 1939. An agreement was signed between the President of India and representatives of Gurusaday Dutta Folk Arts Society in 1984 over the maintenance of the museum. Dutt, who had travelled to the West, thought that the art and folk of rural Bengal should be showcased to attract people from across the world. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThe museum situated on Diamond Harbour Road off Joka is a treasure of folk art and culture. The museum provides an enormous collection of different kinds of kantha stitch that have been a part of Bengali tradition for decades. As one enters the museum, there are mesmerizing kantha stitch items towards the left and central part of the Museum. There is the sujni kantha bed sheet with a central lotus surrounded by flowers, fish, elephants, tigers and birds, all stitched in geometric designs. There is also a huge collection of different designs of beytan kantha, durjani kantha and the arshilata kantha, which is used for covering mirrors, to protect it from dirt. The last one is the rumal kantha, which was and is still used in designing handkerchiefs. There are paintings from the 19th century undivided Bengal, showcasing various mythological characters like Labh-Kush, Radha-Krishna and Dissembling Vaishnava. There is a section of wooden masks with the face of Asuras.The last gallery is a circular frame, with the upper frame containing terracotta plaques of temples, square paintings and wooden dolls. The lower frame has moulds for mango paste or aamshotto, sweet-meat mould, jewelleries made of paddy and shells, old musical instruments made in Birbhum, which include Dhol and Damaru. However, the artefacts have to be maintained properly so that they can be preserved for years.
With the arrest of two persons, who set up a website and duped several Kashmiri youths on the pretext of jobs as crew members and ground staff in Indigo Airlines, the Delhi Police has stumbled upon an inter-state fake job module operating from Central Delhi, the police said on Thursday.The matter came into light when a 22-year-old man, along with 15 other youths, from the Anantnag district of Jammu and Kashmir approached the Jama Masjid police station on March 16. While, two of the identified accused – Irfan and Mohammed Shahid, have been arrested, two others – Amir Shora and Yawar Naik, still remain at large. “We suspect that the module had been working from a long time and have duped hundreds of youths. There could be more members in this module and investigations are underway,” said Paramaditya, Deputy Commissioner of Police (Central). Also Read – Company director arrested for swindling Rs 345 croreAccording to the police, the accused set up a website named Peace Career Consultancy and Job Assistance and advertised themselves through OLX.com. On March 8, the 22-year-old complainant came across the advertisement and applied for the job, for which he first had to meet Yawar and deposit a registration fee of Rs 1,000 at the consultancy office in Anantnag. The next day, the complainant, along with around 50 others were interviewed by Amir Shora, who claimed to be a representative of Indigo Airlines. Soon, the complainant was informed that he has been selected as a ground staff, with a start-up salary of Rs 17,000. But he was also asked to leave for Delhi immediately for the final round of interaction and for collecting the appointment letter. Also Read – Man who cheated 20 women on matrimonial websites arrestedOn March 10, on his way to Delhi in a bus, the complainant met 15 others who were selected as ground staff in Indigo Airlines through the same consultant. They lodged themselves in the same hotel in old Delhi’s Jama Masjid area. Meanwhile, the interaction scheduled on March 12 went on getting postponed and on March 15, the applicants were asked to report at the Indigo Airlines headquarters in Gurgaon. When they went there, they were told that there was no interview. That is when they started suspecting the consultant. On March 16, the consultant sent two persons – claiming to be Head Representatives – to the old Delhi Hotel for the final interaction. The job-seekers then immediately asked them to show their identity cards. When they refused, they were asked several questions – like the address of their head office and so – which they apparently had no clues about. The duo then tried to run away when the youths got hold of them and handed them over to the police. They were identified as Irfan and Mohammed Shahid.They have been booked under charges of cheating and other relevant sections of IPC. A team shall soon be sent to Anantnag to nab the other accused, said a police official.
Kolkata: Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee received a proposal from former Barrackpore MP Tarit Baran Topdar to develop Kanchrapara Airfield into a second airport near Kolkata.Topdar had met the Chief Minister at the state Assembly on August 13 and gave the proposal in this connection.It has been learnt that he will be giving the proposal in further detail to the Chief Minister and a written communiqué in this connection is expected to be sent to the Chief Minister on Wednesday. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeIt may be mentioned that the airfield was constructed during World War II. This comes at the time when there have been discussions between the Airports Authority of India (AAI) and the state government, in connection with setting up of a new airport near the city.Sources said that the state government has already taken steps to develop many such airfields to ensure air connectivity in most parts of the state. The state government is also looking into the proposal of developing Kanchrapara Airfield positively. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe decision on carrying out a feasibility test will be taken after the written proposal with more details gets submitted to the Chief Minister.The Kanchrapara Airfield is around 1,500 metres in length. Considering that the location is suitable to develop the same for flight operation, there could be steps to expand it further.According to the experts, the airfield is close to Kalyani Expressway. So, connectivity will not be a major problem and it will not take much time to reach the city from the airfield. At the same time, AIIMs is also coming up at Kalyani. It would also not take much time to reach there from the airfield.
protecting the brain from shrinkage, aerobic exercise may slow the progression of Parkinsons disease, a progressive disorder of the nervous system, says a neurologist.In an editorial published online in the journal JAMA Neurology, neurologist J Eric Ahlskog from Mayo Clinic in Minnesota recommends that modern physical therapy practices should incorporate aerobic exercise training and encourage fitness for patients with Parkinson’s disease.Aerobic exercise means vigorous exercise, which makes you hot, sweaty and tired, Ahlskog explained. This could include activity such as walking briskly or using an elliptical machine. That does not mean stretching or balance exercises are not helpful, Ahlskog noted. Those types of exercises help with Parkinson’s symptoms, such as rigid muscles, slowed movement or impaired posture and balance. But to help fight the progression of Parkinson’s disease, including dementia — one of the most feared long-term outcomes of the disease, aerobic exercise enhances factors that potentially have a protective effect on the brain, Ahlskog noted.For instance, aerobic exercise liberates trophic factors —small proteins in the brain that behave like fertiliser does when applied to your lawn, he said citing scientific studies.Exercise helps maintain brain connections and counters brain shrinkage from Parkinson’s disease as well as from brain ageing, Ahlskog noted.