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Old Rivers Cut Fast, Fast, Fast Through Solid Rock

first_imgA press release from University of Vermont says, “Geologists Discover Water Cuts Through Rock at Surprising Speed.”  A five-year study concluded that the Susquehanna and Potomac rivers cut through 10 to 20 meters of solid rock in 35,000 years, “a rate far more rapid than previously thought,”  especially since most of the cutting occurred during a “short-lived pulse of unusually rapid down-cutting” in their estimation.  They claim that regional climate change was a bigger factor than glacial meltwater.  Their work is published in the July 23 issue of Science.1  The synopsis says, “One of the most basic geological process is the incision of bedrock by rivers, yet little is known about the rates or timing of this process along passive continental margins like the eastern seaboard of the United States.”1Reusser et al., “Rapid Late Pleistocene Incision of Atlantic Passive-Margin River Gorges,” Science, Vol 305, Issue 5683, 499-502, 23 July 2004, [DOI: 10.1126/science.1097780].The authors don’t mention previous estimates for the age of these gorges.  MSNBC News claims it is twice the previous estimate, but with more water the erosion could have been even more rapid.  Science News, on the other hand, says “These erosion rates are tens to hundreds of times faster than scientists had suspected.”    One can imagine Charlie and Charlie (Lyell and Darwin, respectively) standing on the banks and thinking, “My, my, my; that must have taken millions of years.”  Not necessarily.  Even if the current estimate (37,000 years) is still off by an order of magnitude, compare that with the problem the uniformitarians face: things are happening too fast.  How can animals evolve when the ground is disappearing under their feet?  At least geologists are making regress on their inflated dating methods.  The climate is changing; floods of evidence are rapidly eroding Charlie L.’s fluffy bedrock on which Charlie D. built his house of cards.(Visited 13 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Lalu for coalition at Centre

first_imgRashtriya Janata Dal chief Lalu Prasad Yadav turned 70 on Sunday and wished for a Bihar-like secular grand alliance at the Centre too. Amid a stream of visitors, non-stop phone calls and intermittent Twitter messages, Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar too turned up to greet Mr. Prasad and recounted his political contribution to the State.Leaders greet“Delhi will now see the leadership of mahagathbandhan (grand alliance). All coalition partners should start preparations,” tweeted Mr. Prasad soon after Bihar Congress president Ashok Choudhary greeted him. Congress president Sonia Gandhi called up Mr. Prasad to wish him. Trinamool Congress chief and West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee got a quick Twitter response to her greetings as the RJD chief reminded her that “they all stand in solidarity for the great cause ahead.” A row of RJD leaders, well-wishers and Mr. Prasad’s elder son Tej Pratap Yadav were seen sitting with him at his residence 10, Circular Road.Earlier in the day Mr. Nitish Kumar had dedicated two bridges over the river Ganga to the people of the State. The Opposition BJP had objected to the inauguration of the bridges on Mr. Prasad’s birthday. “They may say whatever they want to say…they are ignorant of how these bridges were completed against all odds…the dates were finalised by the concerned department”, said Mr. Kumar on the occasion. But, the BJP leaders alleged that it was only after their objection that the names were changed. “Otherwise, the RJD had decided to name the bridges after Lalu Prasad,” they claimed. Mr. Prasad’s younger son Tejaswi Yadav is Deputy CM and also Minister of State for Road Construction.last_img read more

Assam villagers donate land for elephant meal zones

first_imgA cluster of villages in central Assam’s Nagaon district has found a way of keeping crop-raiding elephants off their crops — by setting aside land to create a meal zone for them.Most farmers of 12 villages in the Ronghang-Hatikhuli area of central Assam’s Nagaon district do not have enough land to sustain their families. But they donated 203 bighas (roughly 33 hectares) of community land and took turns to plant paddy exclusively for the elephants that often come down the hills of the adjoining Karbi Anglong district.‘Jumbo kheti’The “jumbo kheti (cropland)” has been envisaged as the last line of mealy defence against some 350-400 elephants that have often paid for venturing too close to human habitations. Five of them were electrocuted by illegal electric fences in the last 16 months while half a dozen, injured by spears and arrows, died in the jungles up the hills.About 10 km from the paddy field, toward the hills, is an 8-hectare plantation of Napier grass that 35 reformed hunters have grown for the elephants. This plantation is on land belonging to a tea estate.The locals have also planted saplings of 2,000 outenga (elephant apple), 1,500 jackfruit and 25,000 banana plants on barren land between the paddy field and grass plantation. The three-step plantation has a common thread — environmentalist Binod Dulu Bora and the NGO Hatibondhu, meaning ‘friends of elephants’, he is associated with.“Growing paddy for elephants was the idea of Pradip Kumar Bhuyan, the director of our NGO. We had several meetings with the villagers and managed to convince them by saying they would be setting an example for the world to follow toward reducing man-animal conflicts,” Mr. Bora told The Hindu on Monday.Feeding patternOnce convinced that the experiment would save much of their crops, the villagers decided to donate land and labour to grow paddy for the elephants. Forest Department officials chipped in to provide solar electric fences around the crop area.“Work on the paddy field began less than two months ago. The fence will be withdrawn once the paddy ripens for the elephants to feed on. By mapping the area and studying the feeding pattern, we calculated that the elephants would take 20-22 days to finish the paddy in their demarcated zone,” Mr. Bora said.The nearest fields where the villagers have grown crops for themselves and for trade are 5 km away. “By the time the elephants finish the crop grown for them, we will have harvested much of our own. We think the elephants will turn back if they don’t find crop in our spaces,” said Dyansing Hanse, one of the two village headmen.The Ronghang-Hatikhuli area is inhabited by the Karbi and Adivasi communities.“The fruit trees will take time to grow. But the elephants can feed on the Napier grass, a tropical forage crop that grows fast, if they return to the hills. They have already partaken of the grass six times,” Mr Bora said, adding that 35 hunters who had given up hunting four years ago have been maintaining the grass plantation. ‘Unprecedented’Jiten Kro, the other headman said the villagers had been living in dread of the elephants for years. He hoped the experiment would go a long way in ensuring co-existence with the animals. “We are happy to have given back some space to the elephants through a project that I believe is unprecedented,” he said.last_img read more