Tuesday, April 16th, 3:00 PM sharpTown Forest Trailhead, Andover Street across from White Oak DriveRegister for this event: https://wilmlibrary.assabetinteractive.com/calendar/family-walk-in-town-forest/ Dates and times dependent on vernal pool activityVarious Town-owned propertiesRSVP for this event: email@example.com; 978-658-8238 WILMINGTON, MA — The Wilmington Department of Planning & Conservation is pleased to present the following educational and volunteer opportunities to Wilmington residents leading up to and after Earth Day on April 22, 2019.The events are designed for folks who want to learn more about wetland resources and regulations, Conservation Land, local natural history, outdoor recreation opportunities, and how to be stewards of local natural resources.All outdoor events are weather dependent, so please contact Wilmington Conservation Agent Ryan Hale during office hours (8:30-4:30; M-F) if predicted weather is questionable, or with any questions (firstname.lastname@example.org; 978-658-8238).Library Lecture – Wetland Resource Areas and Conservation Land in Wilmington: What Does It All Mean? Wednesday, April 10th, 7:00 – 8:30 PMLarge Conference Room, Wilmington Memorial Library, 175 Middlesex AvenueRegister for this event: https://wilmlibrary.assabetinteractive.com/calendar/tech-lecture-35/ Walk along the trails of the 157-acre Town Forest, the largest piece of Conservation Land in Wilmington. Learn about the ecology, natural history, and human history that shaped and created Town Forest. There will be activities for all ages, including a nature scavenger hunt for the whole family. Please dress appropriately for the weather. Hiking boots are recommended.Spring Town Clean-Up Day The Department of Planning & Conservation will hold their first spring Town Clean-Up Day in addition to the annual fall Clean-Up Day in September. Explore Conservation Land and Town Parks while helping to clean up trails and recreation areas. Residents are encouraged to organize their own neighborhood clean-up effort, but please just let us know so we can coordinate with you. This is a great opportunity for students to get community service hours. Bags and refreshments will be provided, and gloves will be provided on a first come, first served basis. Please dress appropriately for the weather. Hiking boots are recommended.Land Stewardship Program Introduction Workshop Saturday, May 4th, 8:30 AMCormier Park (end of Blanchard Road)RSVP for this event: email@example.com; 978-658-8238 Wetland resource areas can be hard to identify, and their regulations can be even harder to understand. It’s important for property owners to know whether wetland resource areas are on or near their property, the functions they provide, and what activities may need approval from the Wilmington Conservation Commission. The first half of this presentation will shed light on these topics and what it means forproperty owners.The second half of this presentation will provide an overview of what Conservation Land is and isn’t), and where and how to take advantage of the opportunities it presents. There are many opportunities for education and outdoor recreation on Conservation Land, including nature watching, canoeing/kayaking, fishing, and trails for hiking, biking, and snowshoeing. This presentation will also discuss the Land Stewardship Program.Town Forest Nature Walk This workshop is an introduction to the Land Stewardship Program for prospective Land Stewards and a refresher/update for current Land Stewards. Folks who are just curious about the Program or Conservation Land are also welcome. The workshop will focus on recent revisions to the Land Stewardship Program Handbook and an introduction to where and how you can be a Land Steward for Conservation Land. Refreshments will be provided. Please dress appropriately for the weather. Hiking boots are recommended.Community Vernal Pool Surveys Saturday April 27th, 8:30 AMTown-Wide, meet at the DPW Building, 135 Andover StreetRSVP for this event: firstname.lastname@example.org; 978-658-8238 Explore and help survey vernal pools on Conservation Land and other Town-owned land in Wilmington. Vernal pools are generally isolated depressions in the landscape that hold water during the spring and/or summer, and provide essential breeding habitat for a variety of amphibians and important habitat for other wildlife. The Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program has confirmed 26 Certified Vernal Pools and identified 87 Potential Vernal Pools in Wilmington.Dates and times of this event will be dependent on the variability of when vernal pools become active, typically after a heavy rain with night temperatures over 40 degrees. Vernal pools may be active from March through the spring and summer, but they are most active in spring (roughly March through May). Efforts will be coordinated through the Conservation Agent. Interested parties will be notified of potential vernal pool activity as soon as possible prior to the survey efforts. Please dress appropriately for the weather. Hip or chest waders are recommended but not required. Please call or email for more details if you are interested in participating.(NOTE: The above press release is from the Wilmington Department of Planning & Conservation.)Like Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email email@example.com.Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… RelatedWilmington’s Annual Town Clean Up Day Set For September 21In “Community”Wilmington Planning & Conservation Department Hosts Successful Series Of Earth Day EventsIn “Government”Wilmington Holds Successful Town Clean-Up DayIn “Government”
WILMINGTON, MA — Below are 5 things to do in Wilmington on Saturday, June 1, 2019:#1) Wilmington Annual Fishing DerbyThe Wilmington Recreation Department is sponsoring the 37th Annual Fishing Derby at Silver Lake from 8am to 11am. This multigenerational event for youth and non-professional adults began in 1983. The Derby allows the Town to showcase its finest natural resource while participants have a chance to learn or improve their fishing skills.Participants must register in the Bath House. Prizes will be awarded for the Heaviest Bass and Heaviest Non-Bass in both age groups.The cost to participate in the Derby is $5 for those ages 18 and over, and $2 for anyone age 17 and under. Worms will be available for purchase. There will be shore fishing only – no boats. No fishing license is required for this event only. Rain date is Sunday, June 2, 2019.The Recreation Department would like to thank Jim Buckley and the volunteers who make this event possible. Anyone interested in volunteering should contact the Recreation Department at 978-658–4270.#2) Wilmington Annual Art ExhibitArtists from Wilmington and surrounding towns will compete once again for ribbons, as well as cash prizes, in the 39th Annual Art Exhibition. The event takes place at the Wilmington Arts Center (219 Middlesex Avenue, Wilmington). The reception and exhibit are open to the public, and free of charge. Come, and meet your local artists!Exhibit Hours:Friday, May 31, 6:30pm-8:30pm: Reception with refreshments and live musicSaturday, June 1, 1pm-4pm: Artists can be seen working on their paintings#3) DEADLINE To Participate In Town Wide Yard SaleThe Wilmington Memorial Library is sponsoring its fifth annual Town Wide Yard Sale on Saturday, June 8, 2019, from 8am to 2pm.This is an opportunity for residents to join the fun by being either a seller or a buyer. More than 70 Wilmington homes participated last year!For those wishing to host a yard sale at their home, applications can be found HERE.The application fee is $15. Applicants will receive one large sign and directional signs; lots of free advertising; and maps of sale locations. Applications are being accepted at the library from Monday, April 29, 2019 to Saturday, June 1, 2019.For those wishing to shop at the sales, the library will provide an online and paper map of yard sale locations starting Tuesday, June 6. The sales will happen rain or shine, at each homeowner’s discretion.#4) Book Store Next Door OpenThe Friends of the Wilmington Memorial Library’s Book Store Next Door (183 Middlesex Avenue) is open from 10am to 4pm. All books are $2 or less! Every penny of every sale benefits the Wilmington Memorial Library. Learn more HERE.#5) Drop-In Baby Times At LibraryThe Wilmington Memorial Library (175 Middlesex Avenue) is holding a drop-in baby times at 9:30am. Babies and their caregivers will enjoy this fun storytime that includes rhymes, songs, books, scarves, shakers, bubbles and more. Infants through 24 months. Like Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email firstname.lastname@example.org.Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… Related37th Annual Wilmington Fishing Derby At Silver Lake Set For June 1In “Community”Wilmington Recreation Department Announces Winners Of Town Fishing DerbyIn “Community”WILMINGTON RECREATION: Concerts, Trips & Youth Programs Were Huge Hits This SummerIn “Community”
Share your voice reading • VW poaches Apple exec Alexander Hitzinger for its self-driving car program See All 2020 Kia Telluride review: Kia’s new SUV has big style and bigger value Sep 1 • iPhone 11, Apple Watch 5 and more: The final rumors Meet the VW I.D. Vizzion concept: Steering wheel not included Aug 31 • Best places to sell your used electronics in 2019 Post a comment 2020 Hyundai Palisade review: Posh enough to make Genesis jealous Tags Apple More From Roadshow 2020 BMW M340i review: A dash of M makes everything better Car Industry Auto Tech Volkswagen Enlarge ImageAlex Hitzinger is making the jump back to the Volkswagen group after a stint at Apple’s Project Titan. Hoch Zwei/Getty Images The folks over at Volkswagen have been headhunting lately and their latest catch is former Apple exec Alexander Hitzinger. He’s slated to head up technical development for Volkswagen’s commercial vehicles division as well as its self-driving car and mobility-as-a-service programs, according to a report published Wednesday by Reuters.Hitzinger is no stranger to things at the Volkswagen group having previously done a stint at Porsche as technical director of its LMP1 prototype racing program. He’s also worked in Formula 1 with Red Bull Racing. His position at Apple saw him working on its Project Titan self-driving car program.Volkswagen’s acquisition of Hitzinger is a sign that the German giant is working to keep up with the more agile self-driving car startups from Silicon Valley. The company has been throwing its considerable resources — to the tune of $50 billion — at electric and autonomous vehicles since it was outed for diesel emissions cheating.Volkswagen has debuted a number of electric and autonomous concept vehicles over the past year including I.D. Crozz and I.D. Vizzion. It’s also working on a low-cost electric hatchback that it says will retail for under $23,000, though this may not come to the US. Porsche Volkswagen Apple • Aug 31 • Your phone screen is gross. Here’s how to clean it Aug 31 • iPhone XR vs. iPhone 8 Plus: Which iPhone should you buy? 52 Photos 0
Chevrolet CorvetteMoving up from the 10th-place slot last year is the 2019 Chevrolet Corvette. While we’ve all been ogling the new mid-engine Corvette, it’s easy to forget what a performance bargain the current-generation ‘Vette is. From the base trim to the Grand Sport to the bonkers ZR1, the Corvette is an American icon.My preference is for the Grand Sport, which strikes a perfect balance between everyday drivability and canyon-carving performance. The 6.2-liter V8 puts out 460 horsepower and 465 pound-feet of torque. You can get it with a seven-speed manual or eight-speed automatic transmission, but the kicker is the borrowed chassis and aero parts from the beefier Z06. Like I said, perfect balance. The Corvette is made in Bowling Green, Kentucky. 2019 Hyundai Santa Fe review: Stylish and sure-footed Honda OdysseyThe feature-rich Honda Odyssey minivan also retains its number-two slot from last year’s list. While the 2019 model doesn’t see any changes from last, it’s still a darn good choice for families on the go with reconfigurable seats, Wi-Fi and an excellent rear-seat entertainment system. The Cabin Watch video system lets parents keep an eye on their little darlings without turning around in their seats, while Cabin Talk amplifies their voice so no yelling is required.The Odyssey is powered by a 3.5-liter V6 rated for 280 horsepower and 262 pound-feet of torque. Most trims get a nine-speed automatic but the top Touring and Elite trims now use a 10-speed automatic with stop-start technology. The Honda Odyssey is made in Lincoln, Alabama. 3 Car Games and Apps,Enlarge ImageIt’s all in a day’s work for the Jeep Cherokee, the most American-made car in 2019. Jeep With high trade tensions looming and increasing talk of tariffs, more and more consumers are looking to buy American. Cars.com has released its annual American Made Index, showcasing companies that use the most American-sourced parts and labor in their vehicles. The results may surprise you.Cars.com analyzed more than 100 US-built vehicles for five key data points: manufacturing location, parts sourcing, US employment, engine sourcing and transmission sourcing. You might think something like the Ford F-150 would top the list, but it drops from its No. 5 spot for 2018 and out of the top 10 completely. Even the first-place holder, the Jeep Cherokee, is a pretty global product. It’s a Jeep, sure, but that brand is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, an Italian-owned business.Cars.com surveyed 1,000 people and found that half are concerned about automotive import tariffs, with 41% saying they are unsure if tariffs would make them more likely to buy American. Either way, we’re big fans of all the vehicles on this list. These days, buying American doesn’t necessarily mean sticking with a US-based automaker. Jeep CherokeeKeeping its top-of-the-list placement, the Jeep Cherokee is 2019’s most American-made car. Refreshed for 2019, the compact crossover now features more tech, better cargo space and a slightly tweaked look. It’s available in no fewer the nine trims, including the off-road specific Trailhawk and a fancy-pants Trailhawk Elite.For 2019, the Cherokee gets a new 2.0-liter, turbocharged, four-cylinder engine with 270 horsepower and 295 pound-feet of torque, though naturally aspirated I4 and V6 choices are also available. Regardless of engine, a nine-speed automatic transmission gets the power to the pavement — or dirt as the case may be. The Cherokee is made in Belvidere, Illinois. 18 Photos 2019 Acura MDX adds new features and an A-Spec model Honda PilotDropping down to seventh place for 2019 is the Honda Pilot. Like its two-row Passport sibling, the three-row Pilot offers parent-focused technology like Cabin Talk as well as myriad standard driver-assistance features through the Honda Sensing tech suite. Honda’s largest crossover offers up nearly 84 cubic feet of cargo space. Honda’s 3.5-liter V6 engine shows up again, making a serviceable 280 horsepower and 262 pound-feet of torque. Touring and Elite trims get a nine-speed automatic transmission while lower trims have to make do with a six-speed auto. The Honda Pilot is made in Lincoln, Alabama. 71 Photos 2020 BMW M340i review: A dash of M makes everything better 2019 Jeep Cherokee can handle the rough stuff 69 Photos Acura MDXMoving up one slot to sixth place on the American Made Index is the non-hybrid variant of the Acura MDX. With its SH-AWD system, the MDX is one of the better handling midsize luxury crossovers, and for 2019 the company gives us the A-Spec treatment with a new front fascia and side skirts, 20-inch wheels, wider exhaust tips, unique gauges, a new steering wheel, carbon fiber trim and various Alcantara interior touches.However, both the standard and A-Spec models get a 3.5-liter V6 engine, rated for 290 horsepower and 267 pound-feet of torque going through a nine-speed automatic transmission. The Acura MDX is made in East Liberty, Ohio. More From Roadshow Honda RidgelineAgain keeping the status quo, the Honda Ridgeline maintains third place on the American Made Index. This crossover-that-looks-like-a-truck provides a better ride than a traditional pickup and gets an awesome lockable trunk right in the floor of the bed. And it doesn’t do the truck stuff too badly, either, as it’s able to carry 1,860 pounds of payload and tow 3,500 pounds.The Ridgeline is powered by a 3.5-liter V6 good for 280 horsepower and 262 pound-feet of torque. That is channeled through a six-speed automatic transmission with available all-wheel drive. It’s built in Lincoln, Alabama. 81 Photos 52 Photos Car Industry 2019 Honda Passport: A well-rounded midsize offering 2019 Honda Ridgeline: The commuter’s pickup truck Post a comment 2019 Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport loves to hustle 26 Photos 2019 Honda Odyssey offers plenty of room and features for families Tags 10 Photos Enlarge ImageWaze Carpool is a clever way to hopefully reduce congestion during rush hour. Making it easier to add riders should improve that. Waze Waze Carpool isn’t like your usual ride-sharing service. It’s not out to cut drivers a profit, but instead reduce vehicle clutter by helping strangers carpool along the same route. Now, Waze has added a feature that it says drivers have been asking for.Waze announced on Monday that it has added a new feature for the driver side of its Waze Carpool app. It’s now much easier to bring additional folks into a carpool. After confirming a ride, drivers can tap a new + icon that invites riders who bring minimal detours to the route. According to the image in Waze’s Medium post, the new function will let drivers see how much more money the trip brings in, in addition to how big of a detour is required. Drivers can fill up to four seats, although Waze was quick to point out that the prices do get adjusted “so they don’t exceed the total sum of wear and tear.” Drivers are still limited to two carpools per day, since this isn’t about quitting your job and running this scheme full-time.This is a stark contrast to how Uber and Lyft run pools. In those schemes, the driver is still acting as your usual ride-hailing driver, but instead they’re picking up multiple people who have destinations along similar routes. It saves the riders a little bit of money, even if it means taking slightly longer to reach a given destination. 2019 Honda Pilot Elite: A smoother, tech-rich crossover SUV 2019 Honda Ridgeline review: Light duty, heavy punch Acura RDXThe third-generation Acura RDX squeaks into the top ten list with larger proportions, plenty of interior space and better handling than its predecessor. Forward collision warning with collision mitigation braking, adaptive cruise control that works even in low-speed traffic, lane-keeping steering assist and road departure mitigation are all standard across the board. Like its MDX counterpart, the RDX is available with the A-Spec styling package.The RDX sports a 2.0-liter, turbocharged, four-cylinder engine. Output is stated at 273 horsepower and 280 pound-feet of torque, and it’s mated to a 10-speed automatic transmission. The new RDX is built in East Liberty, Ohio. 2019 Chevrolet Colorado ZR2 Bison: A tougher off-roader Honda PassportThe Honda Passport is a new (well, reborn) entry to both the Honda lineup and the American Made Index. This midsize crossover comes to the fray with great driving dynamics and plenty of tech like the standard Honda Sensing suite of active safety features. An available 8-inch touchscreen gets Apple CarPlay and Android Auto as well as a Wi-Fi hotspot.Under the hood is the stalwart 3.5-liter V6 producing 280 horsepower and 262 pound-feet of torque. However unlike the Ridgeline, the Passport sends that power through a nine-speed automatic transmission. Having said that, just like the Ridgeline, this is the only powertrain available. The Honda Passport is built in Lincoln, Alabama. 68 Photos 2019 GMC Canyon: A fancier Colorado 49 Photos 2019 GMC Sierra Denali review: So close to greatness 2019 Acura RDX A-Spec: Sharp handling, sharper looks Share your voice 12 Photos Share your voice Tags 2019 Chevy Colorado ZR2 Bison: An off-road animal More From Roadshow General Motors Chevrolet Honda Jeep Acura 0 Comments GMC CanyonIf you’re looking for a slightly fancier version of the Colorado that’s more focused on luxe than dirt, check out the GMC Canyon. The top Denali trim gets standard heated and ventilated front seats as well as a heated steering wheel. Maximum payload capability is 1,665 pounds while max towing is a fairly healthy 7,600 pounds.The Canyon is available with the same 2.5-liter four-cylinder engine, 3.6-liter V6 or 2.8-liter diesel as the Chevrolet Colorado. It’s also built in Wentzville, Missouri. Chevrolet ColoradoMaking its debut in the top 10 is the Chevrolet Colorado. Shown here in the tough ZR2 Bison off-road spec, the Chevy Colorado is an excellent truck and one of the two midsize pickups you can get with a diesel engine. Adding to the ZR2’s two-inch lift and front and rear locking differentials, the Bison gets beefier skid plates (trust me, that’s a good thing), steel bumpers and integrated recovery points. Heck, you can even get a snorkel.Base models get a 2.5-liter four-cylinder engine with a six-speed manual transmission, but a more popular choice is the 3.6-liter V6 gas engine with 308 horsepower and 275 pound-feet of torque, mated to an eight-speed automatic transmission. Meanwhile, the 2.8-liter diesel pumps out 186 horsepower and a delicious 369 pound-feet of twist and is mated to a six-speed automatic. The Chevy Colorado is built in Wentzville, Missouri. 2019 Subaru Ascent review
Cabinet meetTwitter / Karnataka CongressThe state of Karnataka is witnessing a lot of drama after the resignation of 11 MLAs from the Congress-JD(S) coalition. With the party top heads out of the country and the resignation spree looming in the state, the future of the coalition is under threat.While the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) claims that the Congress-JD(S) coalition in the state will fail due to internal conflicts, the Congress leaders are confident on pacifying the disgruntled MLAs.The Congress strong man and water resources minister DK Shivakumar also tried to pacify the resigned Congress MLAs and loyalists of Siddaramiah, Ramalinga Reddy, ST Somashekhar, Byrathi Basavaraj and Muniratna at his residence in Sadashivanagar. It is alleged that DKS was unsuccessful in pacifying the leaders as the talks had no effects over the rebel MLAs.According to the media reports, DKS also hinted of appointing Mallikarjun Kharge as the next chief minister of Karnataka, if the situation arises. The rebel MLAs reportedly want Kharge to take over as the chief minister of the state. The Intelligence agency had given prior information to the home minister MB Patil about the mass resignation. It is also alleged that the Congress Legislature Party (CLP) leader Siddaramaiah had called for an emergency meeting after receiving Patil’s information.Siddaramaiah has reacted on the current events claiming that the coalition government is strong and safe. He said that the party was making efforts to establish contact with disgruntled legislators who have resigned.After the resignation of 11 legislators from the coalition, four more resignations from the parties will lead to the collapse of the present government. The Congress party including the senior leaders G Parameshwara, M B Patil and Priyank Kharge are holding a meeting at an office in Cunningham Road.
The nation’s Roman Catholic bishops have chosen a Texas cardinal as their new top leader.Cardinal Daniel DiNardo of the Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston was elected Tuesday as president of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. Among his duties will be guiding the bishops’ relationship with President-elect Donald Trump.Los Angeles Archbishop Jose Gomez was elected vice president. He is the first Latino to hold the post.The vote occurred Tuesday at the bishops’ annual Baltimore meeting. DiNardo succeeds Archbishop Joseph Kurtz of Louisville, Kentucky, who is completing his three-year term.The bishops’ president does not set conference policy. But the choice of leadership is seen as indicating the direction the bishops want for the American church and how far they’ve gone toward following the priorities set by Pope Francis. Share
Matt Marton/APChicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel speaks during a January news conference. On Sunday he announced the city will sue the federal government in defense of its status as a so-called sanctuary city and against threats to withhold U.S. grant funds.Chicago’s Mayor Rahm Emanuel is pushing back against the federal government.On Monday, the city is filing suit against the Department of Justice, which announced it would withhold millions of dollars in police grant money from so-called sanctuary cities.Emanuel is suing because he says new rules for a federal crime-fighting grant go against the Constitution and the city’s values.“Chicago will not let our police officers become political pawns in a debate,” Emanuel said.Last week, U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions said grant applicants have to share information about undocumented immigrants to federal officials if they want the funding.But Emanuel said he refuses to choose between immigrant rights and having well-funded community police.“We’re going to act immediately,” Emanuel said, “to make sure that there’s a ruling by the court, as there’s been on other issues as relates to immigration and refugee policies — where the court has basically stopped the Trump administration in its tracks.”Chicago was expecting to get $3.2 million from the grant to help with crime fighting this year.“The Department of Justice cannot commandeer local law enforcement to carry out federal immigration law functions,” said Ed Siskel, the city’s lawyer. “We cannot be forced to violate our residents’ constitutional rights.”Chicago Police Superintendent Eddie Johnson also expressed concern about the application guidelines.“Our job is to investigate crime, our job is not to investigate immigration status or documentation,” Johnson said.Attorney General Sessions sent letters to four other cities last week warning them that they also wouldn’t be eligible for funding: Baltimore, Albuquerque, N.M, and San Bernardino and Stockton in California.A spokesman for the Department of Justice declined to comment.Copyright 2017 WBEZ. To see more, visit WBEZ. 00:00 /01:51 Share X To embed this piece of audio in your site, please use this code: Listen
(PhysOrg.com) — A new study of the skeletal fossils of Neanderthal and Early modern man suggest the lack of a “throwing arm” may have made the difference in human evolution. Researchers Jill A. Rhodes and Steven Churchill, evolutionary anthropologists published their findings in the January 2009 edition of the Journal of Human Evolution. The paper entitled, “Throwing in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic: inferences from an analysis of humeral retroversion,” provides some clues to the extinction of Neanderthal. Projectile weaponry was an important component of early man’s survival toolkit. Traces of projectile weaponry have been found in Africa dating back some 80,000 years. The mass migration by early man out of Africa into Europe some 40,000 to 50,000 years ago, show early European man developed and used bow and arrows and other projectile devices. The Rhodes/Churchill small sampling of Neanderthal’s skeletal remains indicate he was outmatched by early modern man’s development of a “throwing arm”. This anatomical feature is measured by the degree of humeral retroversion in the dominant arm and in bilateral asymmetry. Neanderthal’s short squat body, massive limbs and lack of backward displacement at the shoulder joint may have hampered their ability to incorporate projectile weaponry. According to Jill Rhoades, an evolutionary anthropologist examinations of early modern European fossils show the backward displacement at the shoulder joint, but none of the small sampling of Neanderthal’s skeletal remains carry this anatomical characteristic. Modern athletes like baseball pitchers have this characteristic in one shoulder joint and it is referred to generally as their “throwing arm”. When engaging in over head throwing activity, such as throwing a baseball or a spear, this increases the movement of the muscles and gives greater velocity and speed to the throw, according to Steven Churchill an anthropologist at Duke University. This missing technology, along with climate change and competing arrow-shooting humans significantly challenged Neanderthal and may have led to an eventual extinction. According to the Rhodes/Churchill study, habitual behavior patterns, including those related to the production and use of technology, can be imprinted on the skeleton through both genetic and epigenetic pathways. Samples of bilateral humeri sufficient for measurement of Neanderthals are rare. The study consisted of two males and one female. The study concludes, that while the sample was small, consistently it was found that Neanderthal lacked the characteristic “throwing arm” found in early modern man. According to archeologist Eric Boeda of Paris X, Nanterre, Neanderthal was not without his resources. Boeda’s team identified bitumen, a tar-like substance on sharpened stones in Syria inhabited by Neanderthal nearly 70,000 years ago. The bitumen was used as an adhesive to attach sharpened stones to wooden handle in a procedure called hafting. This finding by the Boeda research team using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and carbon isotopes at 40km from the source places the hafting practice back 30,000 years from the date previously set in other research. Anthropologists agree, Neanderthal could throw spears short distances, but never graduated to the use of bow and arrows or spear-throwing technologies. Some 40,000 years ago, modern humans trekked out of Africa to Europe taking their bows and arrows with them for fishing, hunting and warfare. The bow and arrow enabled modern man to engage his environment and adapt to various environments. While it is cannot be stated with absolute certainty, Neanderthal’s inability or lack of interest in developing projectile weaponry may have been an important factor in his eventual demise. Scientists are uncertain as to whether modern human used bow and arrows or projectile devices against Neanderthal, but it is a distinct possibility. For further reading on the subject, See Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 56, January 2009, Throwing in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic: inferences from an analysis of humeral retroversion, Jill Rhodes and Steven Churchill.© 2009 PhysOrg.com The Reconstruction of the Funeral of Homo neanderthalensis. Captured in the Hannover Zoo. (Via Wikipedia) Citation: Neanderthal Lacked Anatomical Competitive Edge: Skeletal Remains Tell the Story (2009, January 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-01-neanderthal-lacked-anatomical-competitive-edge.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.