Dunbeholden clobber Johnson Hill in INSPORTS Community LeagueRicardo Douglas (12th, 35th), Kavion Smickle (24th), Jeffery Wheeler (34th), Ricardo Boothe (47th) and Patrick King (57th) scored for Dunbeholden in the hefty win.Meanwhile, a double strike from Fabian Murray carried East West Strikers to a 2-1 win over Reid’s Pen. Murray scored in the 43rd and 60th minutes, while Reid’s Pen’s consolation goal was scored by Oneil Malcolm in the 78th.In another game, Greater Portmore Strikers drew 1-1 with Christian Gardens. Nicholas Steele scored for Greater Portmore Strikers in the 50th minute and Alrick Isaac equalised for Christian Gardens in the 55th minute.Fort cool Spit FyahVeteran club Fort International created a big upset as they inflicted a 300-294 defeat of previously undefeated Spit Fyah in the City of Kingston Credit Union-sponsored Portmore Domino League at Passagefort Drive last Sunday.Fort led 155-152 at half-time. However, Spit Fyah overhaul Fort and led by as much as 23 points, but Fort, playing on their home ground, rallied to win by six points in a sensational countdown.In another game, Right Stuff defeated Passagefort United 300-281. The competition continues tomorrow.Braeton, Racing in KO clashBraeton United are looking to qualify for their second final of the season, as they clash with Racing United in the feature match of a semi-final double-header of the Portmore Division Two Knockout football competition at the Cedar Grove Sports Complex, starting at 3 p.m. Braeton United are the midseason champions.In the other semi-final game, Cedar Grove Estate, who are searching for their first title in club history, face off against Edgewater.In first round action, Braeton United outshot Edgewater 4-3, Racing United eliminated Daytona 1-0, Cedar Grove had a similar 1-0 win over Waterford, while Cumberland booted out Southborough 7-6 on penalties, after the players were unable to break a 2-2 deadlock in extra-time.Cumberland secure final semi-final spotCumberland FC cut down Daytona 4-1 to snatch the fourth and final semi-final spot in the York Pharmacy-sponsored Portmore Division Two Football league last week Sunday.With the win, Cumberland move1 p.m. 11 points and fourth place. Cedar Grove placed joint second with Edgewater (13 points), after the former played to a 0-0 draw with top seed Braeton United (17 points).The semi-final pairings pit Braeton against Cumberland at 1 pm andCedar Grove tackling Edgewater at 3 p.m. on Sunday, February 28, both games at the Cedar Grove Sports Complex.Jamalco maintain lead in ClarendonDefending Major League champions of Clarendon, Jamalco, continue to lead the way in the 2016 season of the Clarendon Football Association (CFA)/Captain’s Bakery & Grill Major League. They have been the most impressive of the three preliminary round group leaders, which includes former Premier League campaigners Sporting Central Academy and Kemps Hill.Jamalco sit pretty in Zone B with 16 points, compiled from five wins and a draw. Their latest win was a 2-0 home effort against New Bowens, the second time they have beaten this team.Even with four games to go in Group B, they could seal their second round berth with victory away to Lionel Town today. Nearest rivals New Bowens are on 10 points, while third-placed Lionel Town are on five.In the first game, they ran circles around Lionel Town 5-0. Ironically, Jamalco have only dropped points this season against Threadlight, the lowest-placed team in their zone.Sporting Central, with a record of three wins and two draws, lead Group C under way points, one point clear of the chasing pair of Moores United and Original Hazard. Their away clash againstKemps Hill are the leaders in Zone A with 12 points, two more than York Town. Comfort are next on nine points.Los Perfectos back in Manchester footballFollowing a near 15-year hiatus, multiple Manchester parish champions, Los Perfectos, are back competing in a Manchester Football Association (MFA)-run football competition.Los Perfectos have over the years fielded a team in the Jamaica Football Federation (JFF) Women’s league.However, they made a resounding start to a new campaign in the parish as a male outfit when they defeated Epping Forrest 6-0 earlier this week in the Jamalco-sponsored MFA Division One.The 2016 season of the Division One competition got underway last weekend at the Kirkvine Sports Club with a dress parade involving the 12 teams that will compete in two preliminary zones of six teams each.Awards were made to the three top teams. Hanbury FC captured the top spot, followed by Northern Caribbean University (NCU) President’s Xl, with Trinity United FC taking third spot.In the opening matches, NCU President’s Xl and Star Zone Academy drew 2-2, Plowden FC drew 1-1 with Mandeville United FC, 360deg Club won 2-0 against Starz Academy, while Technical Strikers outscored Clandon Strikers 3-1.Hillstars secure semis spot earlyDefending champions Hillstars became the first qualifier to the semi-final stages of the MFA Magnum/Captain’s Bakery Major League, when they defeated Georges Valley 2-0 earlier this week.With just four matches to go in the return phase of the preliminary round, Hillstars are the overall leaders with 29 points, one more than Zone Two leaders Downs. However, they are supreme in Zone One where they have a nine-point lead over Mile Gully. Georges Valley are a further four points adrift.Zone Two is far more competitive and far from being decided. Following their recent 7-1 demolition of Porus, Downs lead a tight pack with 28 points. Ricam are second on 24 points, one ahead of Alligator Pond (23). Only two teams from each zone will make the cut.In other Major League matches, Mile Gully and Comfort drew 0-0, Old England lost at home 1-2 to Greenvale and Alligator Pond had a 2-0 win over Villa United.Black Star win mid-season titleBlack Star FC were crowned mid-season champions of the St Elizabeth Magnum Major League after defeating Real Treasure Beach FC 5-4 on penalties.In the finals played at St Elizabeth Technical High School, the two teams had battled to 1-1 draw in full and extra time.In an earlier zonal match, Black Stars had easily defeated Real Treasure Beach 3-1. However, the champions were surprised when Jovaughn Williams scored for Real Treasure Beach FC in the 77th minute. The 1-0 lead lasted 10 minutes as Dwayne Brown minimised the scare to score for Black Star FC two minutes from time. No further goals were scored throughout extra-time.The chase for the league title resumes today with three games and two tomorrow.Today’s games:n Haughton United vs Real Treasure Beach FC at Elimn Holland PYC vs Vineyardn Tafari Lions vs Super ActionTomorrow:n Newell vs St Bess at Hounslown Black Stars vs Appletonn Rum Bar Rum National Darts LeagueWith a game against lowly Shooting STARS, leaders Central Strikers look set to maintain their position in the Rum-Bar Rum National Darts League, which will continue tomorrow with fourth round matches at the Upper Level Sports Bar in Mandeville.The matches are: Central Miners vs Shooting STARS at 11 am, Chelsea Precision vs Dynasty MoBay at 11 am, BOJ Gators vs MoBay Darters at 2 pm, Guy’s Darters vs Dynasty MoBay at 2 pm.Central Miners lead with six points, followed by Chelsea Precision (five), Dynasty MoBay (four), Guy’s Darters (three), BOJ Gators (two), Portmore Stimulus (two), Portmore Contenders (one), Shooting STARS (one) and MoBay Darters (0).
CRICKET: NAGPUR, India (CMC): Chris Gayle has described fellow opener Andre Fletcher as a ‘dangerous’ batsman capable of posting big scores, after he plundered an unbeaten half century to lead West Indies to a seven-wicket victory over Sri Lanka in the T20 World Cup on Sunday. Fletcher filled the opening slot when Gayle was injured and scored a career-best 84 not out off 64 balls to seal a comfortable win over Sri Lanka, their second win after beating England in their opening fixture. Gayle is backing Fletcher to continue his prolific form in the tournament. “It was fantastic to see Fletcher. I have opened the batting with Fletcher many times and I know what sort of player he is,” said Gayle. “He is very dangerous and he is capable of getting big scores, so hopefully he can build on this and carry on and don’t leave it for anybody and get a few more Man of the Match.” The right-handed Fletcher dominated a 39-run first-wicket stand with Johnson Charles and added 55 in an unbroken fourth-wicket stand with Andre Russell to help West Indies overhaul a paltry 123 set by Sri Lanka. Gayle is encouraging Fletcher to play his natural aggressive game and to continue batting deep into the innings. “You have to pick and choose your bowlers who you want to target at particular times and what works for him as well. Continue being aggressive in the first six overs and try and capitalise on that new ball as a batter,” Gayle advised. “You just have to keep that aggression going … try and take it as deep as possible … still look to pick up the odd boundaries in between the middle overs as well and build on whatever start you get.” Gayle took the Man-of-the-Match award with a boundary-studded 100 not out off 48 balls as Windies beat England in their opening match in Mumbai. “Hopefully I can follow-up with more innings like this,” said Gayle. “But if it does not happen we have a lot of guys who are match winners themselves, who can actually do the same thing and destroy bowling attacks around the world.” The Windies arrived in Nagpur on Monday afternoon where they are preparing to face South Africa on Good Friday. First ball is 7:30 p.m. (10 a.m. Eastern Caribbean Time/9 a.m. Jamaica Time).
Shamsi in, Dale Steyn left out JOHANNESBURG (AP): South Africa called up uncapped left-arm wrist spinner Tabraiz Shamsi for next month’s triangular limited-overs series in the Caribbean and rested fast bowler Dale Steyn amid concerns over his workload. Shamsi was the only new player in the one-day international squad announced yesterday, although pace-bowling all-rounder Wayne Parnell was recalled for the first time in more than a year. Head selector Linda Zondi said Steyn was rested for the triangular series against West Indies and Australia to keep him fresh for the test season. South Africa, who lost their No. 1 ranking in Tests with a home loss to England in January, have series against New Zealand, Australia and Sri Lanka this year. Batsman Faf du Plessis was in the ODI squad for the Caribbean despite sustaining a broken finger in the IPL. Du Plessis had surgery on the broken left ring finger this week and should be ready for South Africa’s second game of the triangular series against Australia on June 7, team manager Mohammed Moosajee said. Pakistan pick Arthur ISLAMABAD (AP): Mickey Arthur replaced Waqar Younis as head coach of the Pakistan cricket team yesterday. The Pakistan Cricket Board said the 47-year-old Arthur, a South African who has previously coached his country’s national team and Australia, will take up his new assignment at the end of the month. Younis stepped down last month after Pakistan won only one of its four group matches at the World Twenty20 in India. Arthur was among four foreign coaches shortlisted by a panel including former captains Wasim Akram and Ramiz Raja. He will be the fourth foreigner to coach Pakistan after Richard Pybus, Goeff Lawson and the late Bob Woolmer. Arthur played 110 first-class matches for South Africa before coaching his national team in between 2005-10. Footballer dies after collapse at match BUCHAREST, Romania (AP): Dinamo Bucharest player Patrick Ekeng died after he collapsed during a match in the Romanian capital yesterday, doctors said. He was 26. Cristian Pandrea, a spokesman for the Floreasca Emeregency Hospital, said doctors tried for an hour to resuscitate the Cameroon midfielder but failed. He said the cause of death was not known. The home match between Dinamo and Viitorul Constanta was at 3-3 and being broadcast live when midfielder Ekeng fell to the ground in the 69th minute, seven minutes after he went on as a substitute. Local media said he had a heart attack. Ekeng was immediately taken to the hospital, where dozens of fans gathered outside. Players and staff could be seen crying as events unfolded. Some went with him to the hospital. He has played for Spanish club Cordoba CF, Swiss club Lausanne, and French club Le Mans. He moved to Dinamo in 2015. Ekeng is survived by a wife and daughter who are in Paris. Prosport.ro, an online sports publication reported he was due to fly to Paris after the Romanian Cup final on Tuesday between Dinamo and CFR Cluj.
LONDON, England: Sprinting superstar Usain Bolt admitted he gets upset when the credibility of his performances is questioned because of the doping stigma attached to athletics, while adding that he believes it’s every athlete’s – not just his – responsibility to protect the image of track and field. Bolt, hailed in some quarters as the shining knight for a sport that struggles to be taken seriously in the wider market largely because of a number of high-profile doping cases, says the entire fraternity shares the obligation to do everything possible to keep the sport in a positive place – starting by remaining honest. “Yes, it’s definitely upsetting (when his performances are questioned because of other high-profile doping cases), especially throughout the years when you work hard and the sport is getting a good reputation and then it slides when other athletes decide to do the wrong thing. It definitely upsets me because everybody starts pointing fingers again and starts speculating, and it certainly doesn’t help the sport in any way,” Bolt said. Athletes’ responsibility However, despite his transcending figure in the sport and his massive global value, Bolt believes other athletes need to see the sport’s growth and protection as their responsibility as well. “There are other athletes. All athletes have the responsibility to help the sport and keep it in a positive light. I do my best. I try to run fast and I do it clean and that is what I have to continue doing. I will not say I am the only saviour of athletics. Hopefully, athletes coming up can learn and will see that I did it clean as well,” Bolt added before again noting his disappointment in Tyson Gay, who tested positive for a banned substance in May 2013 but only served about a year on the sidelines because he cooperated with anti-doping authorities. “I can’t do anything about it, it’s the rules. The IAAF makes the rules and they hand out the bans along with WADA and everybody. So, if they see it fit to make the rules what they are, I can’t do anything about it,” Bolt said. “The only person I had a problem with was Tyson (Gay). The reason is, I competed with Tyson throughout the years and I had so much respect for him as a competitor and looked at him as one of the greatest competitors I had ever faced. He was dedicated and worked hard and I looked forward to competing against him, so when it happened I was very disappointed,” Bolt said before comparing Gay’s situation with that of another American, Justin Gatlin. “(Justin) Gatlin was before my time and I am not saying what he did was right. It happened when I was just coming up in the sport but because Tyson and I competed so much against each other and I always told my friends that I could always be sure that Tyson would show up for competition; then you hear that he’s is cheating. That hurts to know that someone you look up to is banned. It bothers you,” Bolt said.
COLOMBO, Sri Lanka (CMC):Opener Kraigg Brathwaite grabbed a stunning six-wicket haul to rout Sri Lanka cheaply but he then perished cheaply leaving West Indies with a difficult run chase on today’s fourth day, in order to win the second Test at the P Sara Oval.Trundling his unheralded off spin that had previously brought him a single wicket from 48 overs in his 23 Tests, the 23-year-old ripped through the Sri Lanka second innings with a spell of six for 29 to send them crashing for 206, an hour after lunch on yesterday’s third day.He was supported by debutant specialist left-arm spinner Jomel Warrican who picked up two for 62.Set 244 to win their first ever Test on Sri Lankan soil, West Indies lost Brathwaite for three to what turned out to be the last delivery before tea as rain arrived to force the end play 10 minutes early. This was before forcing the abandonment of the final session with the score on 20 for one.The right-handed Brathwaite, as he has done previously in the series, faced 26 deliveries before playing down the wrong line and falling leg before wicket to seamer Dhammika Prasad.Shai Hope was unbeaten on 17, with West Indies requiring a further 224 runs to win the contest.Recovery before all outEarlier, resuming the day on 76 for two, Sri Lanka recovered from two early blows within the first 35 minutes to cruise to 154 for four before dramatically losing their last six wickets for 52 runs.Captain Angelo Matthews top-scored with 46, Milinda Siriwardana got 42, while Kusal Mendis chipped in with 39 and Kaushal Silva, 32.West Indies were rewarded in the day’s fifth over when Silva edged a defensive prod at Warrican to first slip where Jermaine Blackwood pouched the first of his five catches, at 84 for three.Two balls later in the next over with no runs added, fast bowler Jerome Taylor got the right-handed Chandimal (12) to inside edge a delivery that came back and wicketkeeper Denesh Ramdin took a sharp catch moving to his left.Mathews and Siriwardana then bolstered the innings with a 67-run, fifth wicket stand, which kept the West Indies bowlers at bay.The right-handed Mathews faced 120 deliveries and struck three fours while the left-handed Siriwardana slammed three fours and two sixes, in an entertaining 60-ball knock.Siriwardana, in only his second Test, played positively striking straight sixes off both Warrican and leg-spinner Devendra Bishoo, who went wicket-less from 20 overs.SCOREBOARDSRI LANKA 1st Innings 200WEST INDIES 1st Innings 163SRI LANKA 2nd Innings(overnight 76 for two)K. Silva c Blackwood b Warrican 32K. Mendis c wkp Ramdin b Warrican 39D. Chandimal c wkp Ramdin b Taylor 12*A. Mathews c Blackwood b Brathwaite 46M. Siriwardana c Blackwood b Brathwaite 42+D. Perera c wkp Ramdin b Brathwaite 5R. Herath c Blackwood b Brathwaite 18D. Perera c Roach b Brathwaite 7D. Prasad not out 1N. Pradeep c Blackwood b Brathwaite 0Extras (b2, lb2) 4TOTAL (all out, 75.3 overs) 206Fall of wickets: 1-0 (Karunaratne), 2-55 (Mendis), 3-84 (Silva), 4-84 (Chandimal), 5-151 (Siriwardana), 6-165 (K Perera), 7-195 (Herath), 8-203 (D Perera), 9-206 (Mathews), 10-206 (Pradeep).Bowling: Taylor 8-3-26-2, Roach 6-1-15-0, Holder 5-1-9-0, Warrican 25-2-62-2, Bishoo 20-3-61-0, Brathwaite 11.3-4-29-6.WEST INDIES 2nd InningsK. Brathwaite lbw b Prasad 3S. Hope not out 17TOTAL (1 wkt, 9 overs) 20Fall of wicket: 1-20 (Brathwaite).Bowling: Prasad 5-2-4-1, Pradeep 1-0-8-0, Herath 3-1-8-0.Position: West Indies require a further 224 runs with nine wickets intact.Umpires: Simon Fry, Rod Tucker; TV – Marais Erasmus.
PARIS (AP):Zlatan Ibrahimovic celebrated his return to his first senior club with a goal as Paris Saint-Germain advanced to the knockout phase of the Champions League yesterday, while Juventus claimed top spot to qualify from Group D with a 1-0 win over Manchester City.In Group B, Manchester United were left frustrated by another lackluster performance in a 0-0 draw against PSV Eindhoven at Old Trafford. The group remains wide open and will be decided on the final day after Wolfsburg moved to the top of the standings with a 2-0 defeat of CSKA Moscow.Ibrahimovic played his first competitive club match at his hometown team Malmo since joining Ajax in 2001. He marked the occasion by netting PSG’s third goal, with Laurent Blanc’s players thrashing their Swedish opponents 5-0 in Group A.Already qualified before traveling to Ukraine, 10-time European champions Real Madrid conceded three goals in 12 minutes, yet still came away with a 4-3 win over Shakhtar Donetsk in the group’s other match. Cristiano Ronaldo scored twice as Madrid made sure of finishing on top.Atletico secured their place in the next round with a 2-0 victory over Galatasaray in Group C and will travel to Benfica to decide first place in two weeks’ time. Both teams have 10 points after Benfica recovered from a two-goal deficit to draw 2-2 at Astana.
MISSED OPPORTUNITY Rivaldo English scored twice as Wolmer’s Boys blanked Camperdown 3-0 in a Group F ISSA/FLOW Manning Cup Group F match at Alpha Institute. English scored in the 24th and 75th minutes after Andre Daley had given Wolmer’s the lead in the 22nd minute. The Wolmer’s team played some attractive football and moved the ball around well and were safe in defence. Camperdown had their moments but could not break down the Heroes Circle-based school. Both teams entered the game as joint group leaders, but Wolmer’s moved to the top on nine points while Camperdown remained on six points. Camperdown’s best chance fell to their captain Tumekie Blackwood, who missed from close range, with Wolmer’s custodian Shemar Jennison out of position. English had a wonderful game and pushed his tally to four in three games. “It is a wonderful feeling to help my team to win the game. The objective is to score as many goals as possible to help the team move towards our goal of winning the Manning Cup,” English told The Gleaner. “I am happy with how the team is playing. We have played three games and won all of them, so it is a good start. We just have to work harder in the remaining games,” he shared. “This is my third season in the Manning Cup, and the dream is to win the title and follow in the footsteps of my father (Irvino English), who won the title at Norman Manley,” he disclosed. Wolmer’s head coach, Vassell Reynolds, praised his team for an improved performance. “It is a much-improved performance from the last game against Dunoon. It is a pretty good Camperdown team. However, we need to play simple, but it is a work in progress,” Reynolds reasoned. Greater Portmore vs Excelsior St George’s College vs Tarrant Vauxhall vs STATHS Eltham vs Jamaica College Charlie Smith vs Waterford Clan Carthy vs Mona (All games start at 3 p.m. and home teams are named first.) Today’s games
SHARJAH, United Arab Emirates (CMC):Darren Bravo and Marlon Samuels stroked half-centuries in an improved West Indies performance, but the Caribbean side were still distinctly second best, slumping to a 59-run loss to Pakistan in the second one-day international (ODI) to concede the three-match series here yesterday.After a woeful performance in last Friday’s first ODI, West Indies displayed more fight this time around, but Pakistan’s target of 338 was always well beyond their reach and they buckled under the burden of a rising required run rate and declined to 278 for seven, to lose their fifth straight game on tour.Left-hander Bravo top-scored with an attractive 61 off 74 deliveries, while veteran right-hander Marlon Samuels struck 57 off 52 balls. Opener Kraigg Brathwaite chipped in with a dogged 39 and wicketkeeper Denesh Ramdin, 34.LITTLE HOPEAt 194 for three in the 38th over, West Indies retained some hope – albeit faint – of overhauling their target, especially with Samuels and Ramdin at the crease and the likes of Carlos Brathwaite and Kieron Pollard still to come. But three wickets tumbled for 37 runs in the space of 29 balls to leave the Windies on 231 for six in the 43rd over and Jason Holder’s unbeaten 31 off 26 balls was only of academic importance at the end.Earlier, Babar Azam spearheaded Pakistan’s charge with his second straight hundred, as the hosts capitalised on a poor bowling effort to pile up 337 for five off their 50 overs – the third-highest ever total in an ODI at Sharjah Cricket Stadium.Babar, batting at number three, stroked 123 from 126 deliveries to follow up his 120 in the opening game last Friday at the same venue, while veteran right-hander Shoaib Malik struck 90 off 84 balls and Sarfraz Ahmed, an unbeaten 60 off 47 balls.Pakistan were in a spot of bother at 40 for two in the fifth over before Babar and Shoaib took the game away from West Indies in a record third-wicket stand of 169.Babar struck nine fours and a six, while Shoaib was aggressor, smashing three fours and six sixes before perishing in the 34th over.Seamer Holder finished with two for 51, while debutant fast-bowler Alzarri Joseph picked up two for 62.SCOREBOARDPAKISTAN*Azhar Ali lbw b Holder 9Sharjeel Khan c Holder b Joseph 24Babar Azam c C Brathwaite b Joseph 123Shoaib Malik c Bravo b Narine 90+Sarfraz Ahmed not out 60Imad Wasim b Holder 11Mohammad Rizwan not out 6Extras (lb2, w12) 14TOTAL (5 wkts, 50 overs) 337Did not bat: Mohammad Nawaz, Wahab Riaz, Mohammad Amir, Hasan Ali.Fall of wickets: 1-40 (Azhar Ali, 4.5 overs), 2-40 (Sharjeel Khan, 5.1), 3-209 (Shoaib Malik, 33.4), 4-282 (Babar Azam, 45.1), 5-320 (Imad Wasim, 48.3)Bowling: Holder 8-1-51-2 (w1), Joseph 10-0-62-2 (w6), C Brathwaite 8-0-60-0, Narine 8-0-39-1 (w1), Benn 8-0-61-0, K Brathwaite 3-0-18-0, Pollard 5-0-44-0.WEST INDIESJ Charles c Imad Wasim b Mohammad Amir 2K Brathwaite run out 39DM Bravo run out 61M Samuels b Wahab Riaz 57+D Ramdin b Wahab Riaz 34K Pollard c Shoaib Malik b Imad Wasim 22C Brathwaite run out 14*J Holder not out 31S Narine not out 1Extras (lb8, w9) 17TOTAL (7 wkts, 50 overs) 278Did not bat: S Benn, A Joseph.Fall of wickets: 1-3 (Charles, 1.4 overs), 2-92 (KC Brathwaite, 21.2), 3-127 (Bravo, 28.3), 4-194 (Samuels, 37.2), 5-209 (Ramdin, 39.2), 6-231 (CR Brathwaite, 42.1), 7-273 (Pollard, 48.3)Bowling: Imad Wasim 10-0-62-1, Mohammad Amir 9-0-49-1 (w2), Hasan Ali 9-0-56-0 (w1), Wahab Riaz 10-0-48-2 (w3), Shoaib Malik 5-2-16-0, Mohammad Nawaz 7-0-39-0 (w2).Result: Pakistan won by 59 runs.Series: Pakistan lead three-match series 2-0.Man-of-the-Match: Babar Azam.Toss: Pakistan.Umpires: S Ravi, Shozab Raza; TV – Ruchira Palliyaguruge.
A joint is where two or more bones meet (articulate). There are over 100 joints in the body. Joints are divided into three types based on the amount of movement they allow. – Fixed or immovable joints (fibrous) In these, bones are fused together by tough fibres. These types of joints are found in areas requiring strength. Examples are the joints between the plates of the cranium (skull) and the fused joints in the sacrum. – Slightly movable joints (cartilaginous) In these, a small amount of movement can occur. The bones are linked by cartilage. Cartilage is a tough, but flexible cushion of tissue that stops the bones from knocking together (friction) and can also compress a little to allow slight movement. Slightly movable joints are found between most of the vertebrae in the vertebral column and the joint between the ribs and sternum. – Freely movable joints (synovial) All freely movable joints share features which prevent friction between moving bones. One of the main features is the presence of synovial fluid between the moving bones. The bones are held together by slightly elastic fibres called ligaments, which allows the bones to move; any damage to the ligament results in the joint losing some of its strength and stability. There are six basic types of synovial joints (freely movable): – Ball and socket – These moves freely in all direction. Ligaments are often used to keep the joint stable. This type is only the hip and shoulders. – Hinge – The movement of this type works like a hinged door. The movement allowed is flexion and extension. This type of joint is formed at the elbows and knee. – Pivot – These joints allow only rotation because of its ‘ring on a peg’ structure. This is found between the atlas and axis vertebrae in the neck and between radius and ulna, below the elbow. – Saddle joints – These allow movement in several planes, back, forward and side to side. Bones are shaped like saddle and fit neatly together. Example the thumb. – Gliding – These allow slight movement in all direction, however, ligaments limit another. Examples are the carpal bones of the hand vertebrae. – Condyloid – These allow movement in several planes, back and forward and sideways. A ligament prevents rotation. The rounded end of bones fit into the hollow of another. Examples are the wrist and ankles. Joints work smoothly together when we perform sporting activities. They must be capable of their full range of movement in order to work well. The demands of sport puts severe stress on joints. Therefore, it is essential to warm up before an activity and cool down after the activity. Joints can be injured as a result of impact, internal forces or a mixture of both. Examples sprains, torn ligaments and dislocation. Last week, we looked at bone growth and formation, functions and types of bone in the human skeleton. We continue this week’s lesson by looking on the bones of the vertebral column and the types of joints. THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN The vertebral column is important in all sporting movements, it is flexible, strong and allows bending and stretching into many different positions. It is also vulnerable to injury if preventative care is not taken. The vertebral column: – Protects the spinal cord – Supports the upper body – Give a wide range of movement – Is important for posture – Passes force to the body parts Disorders of the spine: – Scoliosis – a sideway curvature of the spine that affects posture, causing difficulty in standing straight. – Kypsosis – a forward bending of the spine that makes the person appear to be leaning forward. FUNCTIONS OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN The vertebral column, spine or backbone consists of 33 specialised bones called vertebrae. Between each vertebra, there is a disc of cartilage that allows a small amount of movement and act as shock absorber. The vertebral column can be divided into five sections. – Cervical vertebrae – This is the neck region and consists of seven vertebrae. They provide attachment for neck muscles and support the head and neck. The top vertebra (atlas) fits into the skull and allows nodding of the head. The second vertebra (axis) allows rotation of the head. – Thoracic vertebrae – These are 12 vertebrae that support the ribcage and forms part of the chest area. They allow slight bending, forward, backwards and sideways. – Lumber vertebrae – These are the five largest bones of the spine. The muscles of the back are attached to them. They allow large range of bending forward, backwards and sideways. This region can be easily injured. – Sacral vertebrae – These five vertebrae are fused together and form a very strong base that supports the weight of the body and passes force from the legs and hip to upper body. – Coccyx – These are five fused vertebrae. They have no special function other than for muscle attachment. TYPES OF JOINTS
The ISSA-FLOW Super Cup will stay in Kingston for the third-consecutive year.Wolmer’s Boys won their first hold on schoolboy football’s most coveted trophy with a stoppage time (91st minute) winner by striker Alphanso Gooden that was enough to beat a resolute Cornwall College at Sabina Park last night.Two minutes into injury time, Andrew Daley, who had a very lively game, drove into the Cornwall College 18-yard box and took advantage of some hesitant defending, to take control of the ball, before sending a pass to Gooden. The big forward was given a lot of space in the Cornwall area and he picked his spot and sent a thunderous shot into the back of the net.It was the sixth goal for Gooden this season, and his most important, so far.”It feels very wonderful to score and win the FLOW Super Cup for the very first time for my school,” he said.”I am happy, as the team looked up to me to score and get the win. It was tough, but we gave everything to beat them,” Gooden told The Sunday Gleaner.BEAMING MOTHERHe was joined by his beaming mother, Karen Hinds, who praised her son.”I feel very good. Watching my son all season has made me very happy. He wanted this moment for a very long time (and) it finally came through. I love him,” she said.Wolmer’s principal Dr Walton Small was ecstatic.”We are going to win the other trophies,” he saidCoach Vassell Reynolds said his guys were brimming with confidence prior to the game.”Prior to the game, I had never seen my players so confident. We knew it was going to be a tough game and we were very solid in defence … we also countered well tonight.”Wolmer’s came back strong in the second half after the dangerous Jourdaine Fletcher had tormented them for long periods. He had two very good free kicks, which were saved by goalkeeper Shamar Jamieson.The first half was fairly even, and both teams created chances, but could not find the net.It was the Montego Bay-based Cornwall’s first loss in all competitions this season.Coach Dr Dean Weatherly called it a ‘painful defeat’ but backed his team to rebound and challenge for the rest of the trophies this season.